1) Play Therapy
- For children not testable using formal procedures, the play process involves a mediated engagement with the child.
Specific sets of exercises work towards 3 important goals:
- preventing deterioration of muscles due to lack of use (disuse atrophy)
- avoiding contractures
- improving mobility Neuro-developmental Therapy is found most useful in Cerebral Palsy and other motor disorders.
3) Occupational therapy
- This includes activities aimed at improving fine motor skills, and consequently train the child in all activities of daily living.
4) Sensory Integration Therapy
- The activities offer opportunities to experience tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive inputs & promote adaptive responses to environmental challenges. The result is improved performance of skills that relate to life roles.
5) Applied Behavior Analysis
- It is based on the theory that all behavior is learned and that its antecedents and consequences govern it.
- Tasks are broken up into steps that are taught through rewards.
6) Speech and Language Therapy
- This is an important modality to make children aware of the sounds in words, and to understand that they emit them.
- Then the focus is on imitation, obtaining reciprocal responses, maintaining eye contact, and social relatedness in the communication.
7) Social Skills Training
- This involves teaching emotions, teaching play with toys and social play, role play and turn taking.
- It also includes all the basic life skills such as eating, dressing and toilet training.
8) Creative therapy
- This involves the use of different art forms like music, dance, yoga, drama, visual arts, painting, play and movement to help special children find some means of expression.
9) Remedial Education
- This is used in the management of Specific Learning Disabilities. An individual education program is planned for each child keeping his unique difficulties and his level of functioning in mind.
10) Pre-vocational and vocational training
- This helps to prepare the special child for life as a fairly independent adult and become a productive member of society.
- Older children are trained for a suitable pre-vocational activity, eg. office skills, computers, housekeeping, etc.
- This forms an integral part of treatment of special children right from the diagnosis to prognosis.
- It includes child and family counseling.
12) Treatment of associated medical conditions
- Treatment of medical problems like Epilepsy and seizure disorders, oro-motor problems (drooling, feeding and breathing difficulties), growth failure, dental problems, sensory disorders (visual or hearing impairment), orthopedic problems, genito-urinary problems, sleep disorders, behavioral disorders (aggression, hyperactivity, breath holding spells).